PACCO INTERNATIONAL (PACCO International)
offers a high quality standard virgin coconut activated carbon
product line for a variety of liquid and vapor phase applications.
Some of our products and their applications can be viewed by
clicking on the “Application Chart” button on the
Consistent and predictable performance as well as product cleanliness
and resistance to abrasion are important in most applications
where PACCO carbons are employed. These product
characteristics are achieved at PACCO through
careful control of raw material quality, activation conditions,
and particle size.
Beginning in 1999, heavy investments were made in upgrading
the unit-manufacturing operations to further enhance the above
areas of quality. Additional laboratory equipment and process
controls are in place that assures the manufacture of products
with consistent product characteristics.
In most activated carbon applications, physical adsorption
(performance) can not be predicted by the manufacturer’s
published product specifications. In an application where activated
carbon is being considered as a possible solution, manufacturer’s
product specification information may appear to suggest similar
performance. Various products, that appear equal in the specifications,
may not perform the same.
There can be many reasons why products with the same specifications
do not display equal physical adsorption. Some of the reasons
· Different raw materials
· Raw material condition and size
· Activation feed rate
· Activation temperature and pressure
· Activation oxygen content
· Finished product blending
Other than actual laboratory or field trials, one of the best
predictors of performance is the characterization of the products’
adsorption potential energy. This characterization may also
be used to assure consistent product quality and performance.
A differential adsorption potential energy characteristic curve
defines the energy distribution and percentage of total pores
within an energy level. Two carbons with the same potential
energy curves and the same total number of adsorption sites
will have equal physical adsorption potential.
The major factor contributing to product consistency and predictable
application performance is control of the manufacturing process.
To achieve the desired result the characteristics of every activated
carbon product lot manufactured should fall within the differential
adsorption potential energy curves of the manufacturer’s
standard activation series.
PACCO produces a standard family of products
ranging from dense low activity to less dense high activity
products suitable for many vapor, liquid phase and catalyst
support applications. The differential adsorption potential
energy curves of PACCO’s standard coconut
carbon activation series are shown below.
Development of raw material selection and handling procedures
coupled with tight control of the activation process assures
that PACCO’s standard product line will
fall within the limits of the associated adsorption potential
energy curves. This is the true measure of consistent quality
and performance that our customers expect and demand.
The activated carbon adsorption potential energy required to
remove, or reduce, a target adsorbate (molecule) from a vapor
or liquid phase application can be calculated from the following
If the adsorption potential energy distribution and the number
of adsorption pore sites of an activated carbon are known, adsorption
isotherms can be accurately computer generated.
On PACCO’s web page, visitors have the
capability to generate vapor and liquid phase isotherms for
the PACCO product line. The adsorbate file
currently contains 300 compounds (not all available on the web
site) from which an isotherm can be generated. To generate an
isotherm click on the “Isotherms” button on the
left and follow the instructions. If the compound of interest
is not included in adsorbate file, please contact PACCO
by clicking on the “Contact Us” button
on the left and explain the problem. Dynamic liquid and vapor
phase performance models are available. Please contact PACCO
with your application details.
Having an isotherm and knowing the adsorption potential energy
distribution of an activated carbon does not guarantee successful
application performance. While the energy distribution curve
is the “DNA” of physical adsorption for that product,
other factors may influence product performance in a given application.
· Ash constituents
· Mesh size
· Contact time
· Competitive adsorption
In some applications the carbon ash content may alter or poison
the intended results. While coconut activated carbon typically
has a very low ash content, its’ ash constituency may
be problematic for some applications. This potential is limited
by PACCO in the use a product activation process
that does not utilize fossil fuels, and thus, does not impart
any foreign by-products from the combustion process into the
product. In addition, water and acid washed products are offered
to further reduce or eliminate the soluble ash content to prevent
poisoning due to leaching.
For specialty applications where physical adsorption alone
will not achieve the desired results, catalytically enhanced
or impregnated activated carbons may provide the solution. PACCO
has the capability to enhance activated carbon performance with
a variety of impregnates.
PACCO’s research and development department
is always looking for methods to expand and improve our product
line and manufacturing procedures. PACCO is
anxious to conduct joint developmental projects with our customers.
Please contact PACCO to explore the possibilities,
or to obtain assistance in the selection of the proper activated
carbon for an application.